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The two recessions crossed by the United Kingdom over the past four years have left traces. "A million more employees are currently underemployed compared to the period before the recession in early 2008," an increase of 42% over four years to 3.3 million, according to a study released by the TUC union confederation. More than one employee in ten is "underemployed" in the UK, a proportion that rises to about one in eight women and about one in five low-skilled jobs and youth, according to the study. "A million people have lost their jobs since the recession began in 2008, but this figure only tells the dramatic half the story" because "a million other people are now stuck in jobs that do not give them enough hours to have an income allowing them to get out, "worries Brendan Barber, general secretary of the TUC (Parment, 2009).
The United Kingdom, which had experienced a deep recession in 2008-2009 due to the financial crisis, it fell in the first quarter of 2012. Calling on the government of Conservative David Cameron to tackle "serious" to the problem, Mr. Barber believes that "the country needs an economic strategy for the future of people putting forward a destructive austerity." Reacting to the union's appeal, the Employment Minister Chris Grayling said that "having a job of any kind is better than not having one at all" and assured that in recent months the rise in the number of 'full-time jobs had surpassed that of part-time jobsBranding of Talented Employees
Employer branding has a decisive influence on the effectiveness of recruitment: carefully designed corporate identity speaks to positive potential candidates and target in particular the staff sought. To achieve this, it is necessary to formulate a specific message to future employees and understand their needs and professional expectations.
Boom phase of calm or recession, companies have an incentive to invest in their employer brand concept - English Employer Branding - in the context of marketing employees1. The turbulent periods offer the opportunity to profile their own employer brand and enhance its position in the labour market. This strategy serves to strengthen the reputation of a company with potential candidates. In this domain, requirements are constantly increasing: it is becoming increasingly difficult to hire qualified personnel and recruitment must demonstrate its effectiveness in terms of profitability. Due to demographic changes (aging population and low birth rates in United Kingdom), the recruitment of highly qualified university graduates (the so-called Generation Y, born after 1980) is one of the biggest challenges companies face (Parment, 2009). Today, the war for talent has gone global and the fight raged. The influx of young foreign bodies in United Kingdom forcing employers to revise their traditional concepts recruitment. Due to the growing diversity of the sources of potential employees, the hiring process becomes more complex. Indeed, corporate messages must be understood by the recipients. To ensure the effectiveness of recruitment, it should invest in an employer brand focused on target groups, regardless of the economic situation. If a company manages to attract the attention of good candidates, it will save in the long term significant costs generated by put out to tender and hiring inadequate.An Attractive Employer
Create an employer brand is to apply the marketing concept of branding the employer and its image. Priority is given to identify the expectations of existing and potential employees. In this approach, the company became a mark on the labour market brand that candidates combine concrete attributes. To differentiate itself from its competitors, the employer brand promise is functional and emotional benefits to the target group. The first paper describing the results of research on the creation of an effective employer brand appeared in 1996 in the Journal of Brand Management. Its two authors, Ambler and Barrow (1996), researchers from the London Business School, have defined this concept as "the package of functional, economic and psychological benefits provided by employment." The primary function of an employer brand is formulated as follows: "To provide a coherent framework for management to simplify and focus Priorities, and Increase productivity Improve recruitment, retention and commitment." Therefore, the concept of employer brand influences both external recruitment of potential candidates and internal development and retention of employees already committed.
According to the definition of Philip Kotler (2000), a brand is "Essentially a seller's promise to deliver a specific set of features, benefits, and services to the buyers consistently." In the case of the employer brand, companies are perceived as sellers of their USP (Unique Selling Proposition) to attract "buyers" potential (future employees). The USP is then replaced by the EVP (Employer Value Proposition). The EVP or an employer real advantage on the competition is expected to answer the question of why I would work for this particular company? The employer then considers its employees as true potential stakeholders (Stakeholder). To create an effective employer brand, a company must be identified and understood the factors that enhance its attractiveness on the labour market. The first step is to assimilate the values of a target group. It is not simply to identify the main characteristics such as age, sex and education level - it should also take into account the peculiarities of its multicultural future employees, because these characteristics directly influence the perception of an employer and its benefits. If we consider a job as a product, it must attract potential employees and motivate them to apply the condition being understood that the position in question meets their expectations.The Expectations Of The Employer
Expectations of new employees largely determine the attractiveness of the employer. These expectations represent a complex phenomenon closely linked to the values and identity of the target groups and is directly influenced by personal experiences and cultural background. For successful recruitment, it is essential to consider the needs of young candidates to their employer. First, it is useful to investigate target groups about their needs and their future prospects. The last survey of students was at the University of Birmingham since 2005. In this study, all students in economics, business management option in the main branch for at least seven semesters or secondary branch for at least three semesters were asked about their career expectations. For the choice of first job after graduation, students identified as key aspects including the tasks assigned to them, a good working atmosphere and balance with privacy. Followed the training offer, the company culture, career opportunities and autonomy. On tasks, respondents gave special importance to a variety of activities and demanding the freedom of expression of personal ideas, social contacts and the implementation of knowledge acquired during the studies (Thom and Friedli, 2008). In addition to the surveys of target groups such as the University of Birmingham, various institutes studying the expectations of university graduates to establish rankings of employers. The saying goes "a post is to be filled" no longer has the same impact on young employees before Generation Y.A Generational Paradigm
Each generation becomes the cultural landscape, leaves traces visible and defines its own identity. By generational cohort refers to a group of individuals sharing the same slice of life about twenty years, from childhood to adulthood, which is distinguished from other generations with similar characteristics. Young people who have grown up with the Internet perceive the work as an expression of their identity. The choice of occupation and employer is considered a decision knowingly. For Generation Y, the choice of the employer is significantly influenced - apart from purely rational considerations - for aspects related to feelings, values and personality traits. Several studies (e.g. Thom and Friedli, 2008) show that the majority attaches great importance to the self-realisation (development opportunities, job satisfaction, interesting work, job security, employer brand image). Consequence: in the digital age, the concept of employer brand must align with the expectations of Generation Y and its subdivisions.Recruitment methods Direct recruitment
It can be internal or external and is often promoted. He then addressed the newcomers on the labour market, or those who are currently employed, subject to not make a poaching could be illegal (Article L. 122-15 of the Labour Code). Recruitment can take place through private contact or publicly perform, the only way is then open publicity through advertisements placed in the press. In the area of labour law, recruitment is an operation performed by the head of a company, which is to find people who may hold the jobs available in the company. Technically, this operation is materialised by the conjunction of the job on the one hand and the demand for employment on the other. Successful match between these two entities is the guarantee of successful recruitment.The Job Seeker
All workers seeking employment must require their inclusion in ANPE (Article L.311-2 of the Labour Code). Their application must be renewed periodically, and they must report to the agency any changes that may affect their registration or their ranking on the list. Listing is subject to the general conditions of age (16: Article L. 211-1 of the Labour Code), physical fitness (Article L. 311-5 of the Labour Code) and nationality.
Job seekers are divided into eight categories according to different criteria: absence of employment at the time of registration, availability, obligation to perform positive acts of job search, type of employment sought. This classification leads to three types of job seekers. In the first place the unemployed immediately available and looking for a job: the unemployed are in the full sense of the term. They are enrolled in one of the first three categories of the list of job seekers, as they seek a permanent job full time (first category) or part-time (2nd category) or term temporary or seasonal (third category). Secondly, workers seeking to change jobs (5th grade). It stuck for a long time the contrast between job seekers who have jobs and those who have none. Only the latter were considered immediately available and could have intended to unemployment benefits.
Availability implies indeed the fulfillment of "positive acts of job search," meaning that the applicant is required to perform permanently, as proposed by the ANPE that on its own initiative, all steps within its power to its reclassification or professional insertion (Article L. 311-5 of the Labour Code). Could in principle be recognised as unemployed applicants who are in employment or reduced in vocational training. Unemployment was designed as a simple transition between jobs, and the unemployed as a worker employed full time by finding a new job. This concept has been challenged by the development of massive unemployment and long-term. The focus is not so much to ensure the availability of the unemployed to preserve their employability. Unemployed or prohibit a business or any kind of training can only precipitate his exclusion from the labour market. Hence the recognition in 1991 of a third type of job seeker: the unemployed active job search combines with professional training or exercising an occasional activity or reduced. If this activity or training not exceeding certain thresholds, the applicant shall be deemed immediately available and classified in one of the first three categories of the list, if this threshold is exceeded, it will be registered as a person not immediately available (category 4, 6, 7 and 8). The distinction between unemployment and underemployment has become fluid and uncertain.The Job
Different types of jobs are available on the labour market. This diversity is the first qualification that specifies the job. Market fragmentation proceeds in second place of employment policies of companies and they have developed around a core of permanent employees attached to the company, a job device that fits their business changes. These two forms of fragmentation of the labour market are not unrelated. Companies seek to focus on the services of professionals whose qualifications closely meet the object of their activity, and instead resort to precarious or part for their peripheral functions (Arthur, 1995). A third type of jobs traditionally plays an important role in the labour market: those offered by the government employer within the public service or public enterprises.Qualifying employment "offered"
Adapting to the concrete structures of the workplace, the law and especially the collective agreement and establish a professional practice essential first generic distinction, although fairly blurred between three groups: Workers, employees or employees, engineers and managers. Within the company and at the time of hiring can operate the qualification of a worker as a direct function of the position to which he is assigned, no necessary correspondence with diplomas or titles from previously held jobs. The qualification is then shown on the contract and engagement letter shall prevail. (Arthur, 1998)Recruiter
Ordinance No. 86-1286 of December 20, 1986 ended the monopoly of state services (including NAE) for placement. It remains true that the employer must notify the agency above all vacancy (L. 311-2) to be filled through third parties outside the company (R.311-2-1) under penalty of a fine. Since the company has the choice between the employee directly recruit or use external speakers as the recruiting firm. This investment activity is lawful and growing rapidly. The scale of benefits is variable, ranging from simple handwriting analysis or psychometric tests of the approach and the presentation of an individual by name looking through the selection of candidates. Moreover, before this multitude of services, some firms specialise or are limited to a sector. At the legal level, the activity of recruitment firms contrasts with a lack of control of their business and may be affected by the ban on private placement imposed by Article L311-2 to 7 of the Labour Code. However, the activity of recruitment professionals is abundant, it seems that it is tolerated. Jurisprudence and doctrine are the main sources of law. While the legal vacuum is not total, and in the absence of any specific legislation or regulation, the parties define their own obligations in the contract, pursuant to article 1134 of the Civil Code: "The conventions legally formed in lieu of law to those who do."
For cons, the law considers that these recruitment firms have obligations: they are obliged vis-à-vis the employer, to an obligation of means and not of results. However, the limits of the obligation vary with the level of vacancy, the financial resources available to the firm and the quality of information provided by the previous employer. The Cabinet or "headhunter" must be limited to make a selection among the candidates to fill and submit to the company those selected. They are subject to the rules set by the National Commission for Informatics and Liberties. Therefore, the firm has to the employer and candidate profiles corresponding to their expectations. The latter will be obliged to pay the fees provided even if no such person is hired by the company. To this slight and abuse laws, firms had to provide guarantees to companies for their survival as the monitoring of vocational integration or a guarantee of a new recruitment totally free in case of resignation of a candidate within a year. (Harris, et al., 1999).
Abuse has helped define the limits of the activity. The first limitation concerns the protection of the privacy of the applicant. The firm will need to find a balance between the respect for private life and the knowledge skills and personality of the applicant. Article L. 121-6 form a double bond. On the one hand, the information collected may not have the purpose to assess the candidate's ability to perform the job or skills. However, the recruitment of senior presupposes the assessment of candidates in terms of skills, technical knowledge but also its adaptability, its ability to integrate into a team or to animate, its potential to evolve into other jobs in the company and focuses on the personality of the candidate elements to assess its features. On the other hand, the information requested must be directly related and necessary to the proposed use. Parliament considers that it can be applied to candidate information on his health, sexual life, accommodation, occupation of the parents or the spouse, the name and address of non-professional knowledge or recreation.
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